After a very strange year affected by the pandemics, we finally made it to this period we are happy about: Christmas and New Year´s holidays. It´s a time to be with your family, if it is possible in these circunstances.
This brings us to our topic: the accusative case. You may wonder why would Serbian grammar be related to holidays. Even though we use the accusative on daily basis, during the holidays it definitely cannot be avoided. This is because this time of the year is a time for presents and food.
A reminder about the case system in Serbian
The word order in the Serbian language is very flexible. That is a consequence of padeži – the case system. Nouns, along with pronouns and adjectives, change endings, depending on the role they have in a sentence. This way they create meaning and sense in our heads.
Languages like English do not use this system. They rely on prepositions and strict word order. In English, depending on the word order we know who did what and can make sense of the sentence.
Check out these examples:
Ja sam dao mapu Milanu. = I gave a map to Milan.
Ja sam Milanu dao mapu. = I to Milan gave a map.
Milanu sam dao mapu. = To Milan I gave a map.
Mapu sam dao Milanu. = A map I gave to Milan.
As you can see, if you change the word order in English, it wouldn’t sound natural or make much sense, whereas in Serbian all four sentences sound well. The slight difference between them is that what you mention first is the most emphasized (although it would also depend on the tone you apply).
This is why in English it is so important to get the word order right. On the other hand, in Serbian, it is really important that we change the endings of the words based on what we want to say. And to use the correct ending, of course.
The accusative case as a direct object
Most of the cases in Serbian have more than one function (more than one role they can perform). Even though the same thing happens with the accusative, here we are mostly going to focus on accusative as a direct object.
A direct object in a sentence is someone or something directly receiving action from a subject, the one performing the action.
I drank coffee.
In English, the direct object always goes after the verb.
In Serbian, this can or does not have to be the case.
Pila sam kafu.
Kafu sam pila.
It’s more important to get the ending of the direct object right.
Forming the accusative case
Nouns and adjectives
The accusative case is very similar to the nominative case in its form. So, if you have already learned how the nouns and adjectives end in their “base form”, this should be very easy. You can take a look at the photo below.
Let’s see some examples of the typical phrases with accusative you would hear during the holidays:
- Dobio sam divan poklon. I got an amazing gift. Direct object: divan poklon (nominative singular form)
- Okitio sam moju jelku. I decorated my Christmas tree. Direct object: moja jelka (nominative singular form)
- Dali su mi mekano ćebe za Novu godinu. They gave me a soft blanket for New Year’s. Direct object: mekano ćebe (nominative singular form)
- Stavljam velike ukrase na jelku. I am putting big ornaments on the Christmas tree. Direct object: veliki ukrasi (nominative plural form)
- Ješćemo ukusne sarme za Božić. We will eat delicious stuffed cabbage for Christmas. Direct object: ukusne sarme (nominative plural form)
- Pićemo kvalitetna vina. We will drink quality wines. Direct object: kvalitetna vina (nominative plural form)
One person says: I saw Ana for Christmas.
Another person says: Hey, I saw her too.
Why not say: I saw she too?
You know that you are supposed to use her instead of she in this situation, even though you would understand the meaning of “I saw she” because of the word order in English. Nevertheless, it would sound a bit strange.
Breaking news, guys. This is what we call the accusative case in pronouns in Serbian. Of course, in Serbian, this topic is more complex and applies to various parts of speech. In this section, we will only talk about how it applies to pronouns.
First, let’s check personal pronouns’ forms in the nominative (base form) and accusative.
In the accusative case, the personal pronouns can be long or short. You cannot use them interchangeably, though. We use the short ones in the middle of the sentence:
Ja sam je video. I saw her.
We use the long ones in the following situations:
- at the beginning of the sentence: Nju sam video. I saw her.
- at the end of the sentence: Video sam nju. I saw her.
- after prepositions: Za nju sam pitao. I asked about her.
What version should you opt for, long or short? Most of the time we use the short version. However, if it is easier for you to use and remember the long version, for now, that is totally fine. Most of our students in the beginning find it easier to use the long version.
Let’s see how the examples from the section about nouns and adjectives would look with pronouns:
- Dobio sam divan poklon. I got an amazing gift.
- Dobio sam ga. I got it.
- Okitio sam moju jelku. I decorated my Christmas tree.
- Okitio sam je. I decorated it.
- Dali su mi mekano ćebe za Novu godinu. They gave me a soft blanket for New Year’s.
- Dali su mi ga. They gave it to me.
- Stavljam velike ukrase na jelku. I am putting big ornaments on the Christmas tree.
- Stavljam ih na jelku. I am putting them on the Christmas tree.
- Ješćemo ukusne sarme za Božić. We will eat delicious stuffed cabbages for Christmas.
- Ješćemo ih za Božić. We will eat them for Christmas.
- Pićemo kvalitetna vina. We will drink quality wines.
- Pićemo ih. We will drink them.
Question pronouns in accusative
What if you want to ask other people what they got for Christmas? Or who did they meet? Can you use the typical ko (who) and šta(what)? Well, not entirely.
If you want to ask
- Who did you meet for Christmas?
Ko si sreo za Božić?
we would say
- Koga si sreo za Božić?
Therefore, if the object is a person, you use koga, not ko. In the case of an object, we can use šta as in:
Šta si dobio za Božić?
Dobio sam divan poklon.
That’s it. You are now prepared to use the accusative during the holidays, express everything you got or gave as a present and everything you will prepare, eat and drink during these days.
If you still catch yourself making a mistake, no worries. It will take some time before you start automatically using these forms.